# Decoding Llama3: An explainer for tinkerers

A not-so-quick 7-part guide to using the Llama3 open source AI model

We are continuing our series of Decoding Llama3 with Feed Forward Network and SiLU activation function.

embeddings into internal embedding which generalizes well.

Let us recall the FFN architecture used in Transformer

`FFN(x) = ReLU(xW1 +b).W2+b`

ReLU, allows only values greater than 0.

Picture from PyTorch.

Hence we can rewrite our FFN layers as

`FFN(x) = max(0, xW1 +b).W2 + b`

Llama3 uses SwiGLU.

`FFN(x) = (Swish(x.W1) * x.W3).W2`

Swish is the same as SiLU (Sigmoid Linear Unit) when beta =1

Picture from Umar Jamil’s lecture on Llama.

Picture from PyTorch.

```
class FeedForward(nn.Module):
def __init__(
self,
dim: int,
hidden_dim: int,
multiple_of: int,
ffn_dim_multiplier: Optional[float],
):
super().__init__()
hidden_dim = int(2 * hidden_dim / 3)
# custom dim factor multiplier
if ffn_dim_multiplier is not None:
hidden_dim = int(ffn_dim_multiplier * hidden_dim)
hidden_dim = multiple_of * ((hidden_dim + multiple_of - 1) // multiple_of)
self.w1 = ColumnParallelLinear(
dim, hidden_dim, bias=False, gather_output=False, init_method=lambda x: x
)
self.w2 = RowParallelLinear(
hidden_dim, dim, bias=False, input_is_parallel=True, init_method=lambda x: x
)
self.w3 = ColumnParallelLinear(
dim, hidden_dim, bias=False, gather_output=False, init_method=lambda x: x
)
def forward(self, x):
return self.w2(F.silu(self.w1(x)) * self.w3(x))
```

- The FeedForwardNetwork at the end of the attention block consolidates all of the sentence learnings for the output task of predicting the next token in decoders (all text generation models like Llama).
- Transformer and many other models following Transformer have kept a constant FFN architecture with a single hidden layer that grows 4x the size of
`model_dim`

and then converges back to`model_dim`

to consolidate the learning. - Because of Grouped-Query attention, we have a reduction in parameters. Llama3 architects used these extra parameters in FFN, keeping the overall parameter size of the network the same and comparable with the older releases.

Doing so has potentially helped the performance. - At line number 194, we start with taking the inputs -

`dim`

: model embedding dimension

`hidden_dim`

: hidden layer dimension

`multiple_of`

: explained below

`ffn_dim_multiplier`

: multiplier explained below - The new multiplier of FFN is an interesting configurable setting.

`ffn_dim_multiplier`

is the multiplier value.

But in order to keep the scale of the`hidden_dim`

to the expected size, like multiple of large power of 2 like 256, multiple_of was introduced. The idea here is that it will get you to the closest multiple of multiple_of. - At line number 206, let us take an example and understand this

Let us say

`multiplier_of`

is 64

`hidden_dim`

is 100

`64 * (( 100 + 64-1)%64) = 64* (163 %64) = 64*2 = 128`

We got an embedding size of a factor of 64

Recall that SwiGLU requires 3 weight parameters -`self.w1`

,`self.w2`

and`self.w3`

. - At line number 218, we put it all togetherTransformer.

We have covered all the core components of the Transformer Block, next, we put them together as a machinery called Llama 3 😀

Head over to Decoding Llama3: Part 7 - TranformerBlock

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